For the NCLEX exam, it is important that you not only just know the different organs in the body but you really understand how it relates to the role of the nurse.
This is the main general point to mastering the body systems on the exam.
In this article, I will discuss six major organs you must know for the NCLEX exam.
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It’s important that you understand not only what the brain does but the purpose of each lobe and how it effects the patient if it is damaged.
Main Role: Maintains the neurological and mental health of the patients. Effects coordination and balance, speech, ability to swallow.
Abnormalities in the brain would need to monitor their level of consciousness. Ex: autonomic dysreflexia
For the heart, you need to understand how blood flows through the heart, what is the electrical conduction system and what are some common heart conditions.
Main Role: Pumps blood through the circulatory system by rhythmic contraction dilation.
Abnormalities would need to monitor fluid balance, heart rate, tissue perfusion, etc.
For the lungs you need to understand oxygen exchange, and how are the lungs effected when the patient has certain lung diseases or problems.
Main Role: Where gas exchange takes place at the alveolar level so the patient can breathe normally.
Abnormalities in the lung would require the nurse to monitor respirations, lung sounds, ABGs, etc.
For visual help, visit our partner Picmonic which breaks down anatomy and physiology visually.
When it comes to the liver, you want to know the purpose of the liver and what are all the enzymes or lab values it houses.
Main Role: Metabolizes and excretes everything that comes in and goes out of the body. Also houses the clotting factors and fatty acids.
Abnormalities would need to monitor electrolyte levels, clotting factors, skin color (jaundice).
For the kidneys, you want to make sure you not only know what they do, but also their corresponding lab values, acid base imbalances and how the body responds when they are damaged.
Main Role: Filters blood of metabolic wastes, regulates acid base concentration, maintain electrolyte balance. Abnormalities would need monitor labs (BUN/Cr), electrolytes, urinary output.
The pancreas is a very important organ in the body and is one many test takers overlook and don’t really understand.
It’s important that you understand not only it’s function but also how it changes the health of the patient when it is damaged. One great example is with diabetes mellitus.
Main Role: Secretes hormones and digestive enzymes including insulin.
Abnormalities would need to monitor intake and output, glucose levels, etc.
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